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    The School of Agricultural Sciences (SAS)

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    The School of Food Technologies, Nutrition and Bio Engineering (SFTNB)

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    The School of Forestry, Environmental and Geographical Sciences (SFEGS)

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    The Department of Environmental Management (Former MUIENR)

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Pollution of protected springs in relation to high and low density settlements in Kampala- Uganda.

Abstract

In Kampala City like most towns in Uganda, provision of treated piped water has been concentrated in high-income zones with very little improvement in the high-density, low-income areas where the majority of the urban population lives. This has left protected springs as a major source of domestic water. These springs are “protected” during construction by providing provisions in two parts; a permeable section of gravel and sand into which the source waters enter, and a dam which prevents the water from bypassing the catchment or reservoir. A perforated supply pipe leads the water out of the reservoir. Very few studies have been carried out to determine the extent of pollution of protected springs and none on the comparison of protected springs in high- and low-density settlements. This study, carried out both in the dry and wet seasons, was aimed at establishing the water quality of protected springs in Kampala and contributory pollution factors. Both high- and low-density settlement areas were studied. Survey using questionnaires and field observations were done to identify sources of pollutants and to relate them to human activities and explain the possible causes and sources of pollution of the springs. Pollution (chemical and biological) levels were higher in protected springs located in high-density settlement areas and this was attributed to poor waste-management practices. Human activities like construction of pit latrines, some located less than 5 m upstream of protected springs, animal husbandry and indiscriminate dumping of wastes contributed to the presence of high levels of chemical and biological pollutants in the protected springs. Average concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (49.5 mg/l) and ammonium-nitrogen (7.3 mg/l) and faecal coliforms (1.8 × 104 no./100 ml) were recorded. Pollution levels were higher in the rainy season and this was attributed to storm water runoff and its infiltration into the ground water. The results indicate that water from protected springs poses a health risk to the communities using it.

Keyword-

  • Pollution;
  • Protected springs;
  • Settlements;
  • Kampala;
  • Uganda

 
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Nsubuga, F. B., Kansiime, F. and Okot-Okumu, J (2004): Pollution of protected springs in relation to high and low density settlements in Kampala- Uganda. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 29:1153-1159.

Primary Production and Decomposition of Loudetia Phragmitoides (A.Peter) in the littoral wetland of a small satellite lake (L.Nabugabo, Uganda).

Abstract

Loudetia phragmitoides (A. Peter) C.E. Hubbard is one of the dominant grass species occupying the Lake Nabugabo littoral wetlands, another prominent species being Miscanthedium violaceum (K. Schum) Robyns. Lake Nabugabo is a satellite lake, about 5 km to the west of Lake Victoria. It is a unique ecosystem, which is nutrient poor due to the highly leached ancient soils in the catchment. To determine the significance of wetland functions on the open lake ecosystem, the primary production and biomass decomposition process in the wetland of the dominant grass species, Loudetia phragmitoides were assessed. A biomass yield of 1638 gm-2 and an average primary production rate of 941 gm-2 year-1 were obtained for the Nabugabo wetland. Litter decomposed faster in the open lake compared with the littoral wetland with half of the litter weight lost in 110 and 321 days, respectively. Phosphorus leached more rapidly from decomposing litter compared with nitrogen. The study found that wetland dominant grass species can be an important nutrient reservoir and that the decomposition process in the wetland is influenced by the flooding regime, which exports significant nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to the open lake. The importance of the littoral wetland to the overall ecology of the Nabugabo ecosystem is discussed.

Keywords:

  • decomposition;
  • L. phragmitoides;
  • Nabugabo;
  • nutrients;
  • production;
  • wetland

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Effect of crop wastes derived soil fertility amendments on character, pest infestation and yield of cabbage. Proceedings of the XXII International Congress of Entomology, 15-21 August 2004 Brisbane-Queensland, Australia.

Karungi, J., Ekbom, B. and Kyamanywa, S. (2004):  Effect of crop wastes derived soil fertility amendments on character, pest infestation and yield of cabbage. Proceedings of the XXII International Congress of Entomology, 15-21 August 2004 Brisbane-Queensland, Australia.  Abstract published in book of Abstracts.

The traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) and attitudes of the rural community of Bulamogi County (Uganda) towards traditional medicine: preliminary findings.

Abstract

Traditional medicine (TM) in Bulamogi (Uganda) is holistic, providing treatments for physical illnesses as well as psycho-spiritual ones. People use it to prevent and eliminate the effects of witchcraft, to appease spirits and to cure chronic illnesses. The traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) are numerous and have extensive experience of traditional healing. They serve as important depositories of traditional knowledge of healing. The health seeking behaviour of the Balamogi is biased towards orthodox medicine (OM), because the people believe it to be more effective than TM. Local people prefer the exact diagnosing methods of orthodox medicine practitioners. The functional values of OM and TM are different in that they serve different health needs in the society. We suggest that they are compatible and complementary as a reliance on both systems is observed. The TMPs, upon additional training, are seen by authorities as a ready source of manpower to provide primary health care services. Some effort has been taken to recognise and integrate TM into the mainstream health care delivery system of Uganda.

Author-supplied keywords biodiversitydiseasehealth careorthodox medicinetraditional knowledgetraditional medicinetraditional medicine practitionersuganda

 
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A comparative study of Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum-based constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in a tropical climate.

Abstract

The treatment efficiencies of constructed wetlands containing Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus) and Miscanthidium violaceum (K. Schum.) Robyns (synonymous with Miscanthus violaceum (K. Schum) Pilg.) were investigated in a tropical climate (Kampala, Uganda). Papyrus showed higher ammonium-nitrogen and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) removal (75.3% and 83.2%) than Miscanthidium (61.5% and 48.4%) and unplanted controls (27.9% ammonium-nitrogen). No TRP removal was detected in control effluent. Nutrients (N and P) were significantly higher (p<0.015) in papyrus than Miscanthidium plant tissues. Plant uptake and storage was the major factor responsible for N and P removal in treatment line 2 (papyrus) where it contributed 69.5% N and 88.8% P of the total N and P removed. It however accounted for only 15.8% N and 30.7% P of the total N and P removed by treatment line 3 (Miscanthidium violaceum). In addition, papyrus exhibited a significantly larger (p=0.000) number of adventitious roots than Miscanthidium. Nitrifying bacteria attached to papyrus (2.15×106±1.53×105 MPN/g DW) and Miscanthidium roots (1.30×104±8.83×102 MPN/g DW) and the corresponding nitrification activities were consistent with this finding. Epiphytic nitrifiers appeared more important for total nitrification than those in peat or suspended in water. Papyrus root structures provided more microbial attachment sites, sufficient wastewater residence time, trapping and settlement of suspended particles, surface area for pollutant adsorption, uptake, assimilation in plant tissues and oxygen for organic and inorganic matter oxidation in the rhizosphere, accounting for its high treatment efficiency.

Keywords

  • Constructed wetlands;
  • Cyperus papyrus;
  • Miscanthidium violaceum;
  • Nutrients;
  • Tropical wetlands;
  • Wastewater treatment

 
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Hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of Nakivubo wetland, Uganda

Abstract

Nakivubo wetland, which has performed tertiary water treatment for Kampala city for the past 40 years, is ecologically stressed by agricultural and infrastructural developments. Field studies were carried out to assess the hydraulic loading, pollution profile, stability and water quality of this wetland. The upper and lower Nakivubo wetland receive 4.13-7.66 × 104 and 3.50-10.32 × 104m3/day of water respectively, of which 48.3–57.9% of total hydraulic loading to the upper wetland was carried by sampling station S1. The influent water to the upper wetland had a total BOD5 and NH4-N loading ranging from 2.6-4.4 × 103kg BOD/day and 0.79-1.68 × 103kg NH4-N/day respectively. The National Water and Sewerage Corporation's effluent constituted a large proportion of BOD and NH4-N loading into Nakivubo wetland. Zinc, copper and chromium were detected in trace amounts at most sampling stations. However, lead was occasionally detected at Kibira channel (station S5) at a concentration of 0.4mg/l, which is higher than the permitted Ugandan discharge limit of 0.1mg/l (NEMA 1999). The wetland showed a very high removal efficiency for BOD, ranging from 77.4%–86.3%, compared to ammonium-N which ranged from -66.1% to 33.1% indicating limitations with the nitrification process. A low self-purification for zinc, copper and chromium was also observed in the upper Nakivubo wetland, possibly due to poor plant-wastewater interaction resulting from wetland drainage. In the lower Nakivubo wetland conductivity and dissolved oxygen were generally higher in papyrus- than in Miscanthidium-vegetated zones. However, the BOD and ammonium-N loadings did not vary significantly (P = 0.217 and P = 0.359 respectively) between the two vegetated zones

Keywords

 
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Weladji Chimpanzee diet and habitat selection in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda

Abstract

Between June 2000 and August 2001 observations were made on food types, plant species and parts consumed by chimpanzee in relation to various habitats in the Budongo Forest Reserve (BFR), Uganda. Factors influencing their occurrence as well as their activity patterns were also assessed. The chimpanzees of the BFR spent 80% of their daytime feeding and their diet comprised 56 plants species of which 94% were trees. Chimpanzees spent most of their feeding time on B. papyrifera, Ficus sur, Ficus mucuso, Ficus exasperata and Ficus variifolia. Chimpanzees fed mostly on fruits (71%), favouring ripe ones, and young leaves (16%). Factors positively influencing occurrence of chimpanzees included habitat types (logged area and forest edge), plant types (trees), food types (fruits), fruit maturity (ripe fruits), and fruit quantity. Logged area and forest edge provided 76% of the chimpanzee food but are also the habitats with the highest human interference, e.g. logging and agriculture encroachment. Past forest management plans did not consider chimpanzee food trees; most were considered weeds and killed with aboricides. We conclude that the long-term survival of chimpanzees of the BFR requires implementation of management plans based on conservation of food tree species.


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More Articles ...

  1. Ecological changes following rules in use and anthropology; the case of Echuya bamboo forest, Uganda.
  2. Legal recognition of customary forests in Uganda: An approach to revitalising ethnoforestry .In Institutions, Incentives and Conflicts in Forest Mnanagement: A Perspective, Shemwetta,E,J, Kajembe G.C. and S.S. Madoffe eds.
  3. The status of wild food plants in Bulamogi County, Uganda.
  4. Challenges and prospects of disseminating technologies through farmer field schools: Lessons learnt based on experience from Uganda.
  5. Profitability of sorghum-legume cropping practice among households in Eastern Uganda.
  6. Microfinance self-sustainability and outreach in Uganda: A case of Teso Rural Development Trust Limited.
  7. Determinants of use of information and communication technologies by agribusiness firms in Uganda.
  8. Performance of farmers-led extension system in agricultural technology transfer and adoption.
  9. Adoption of IPM groundnut production in eastern Uganda.
  10. Proceedings of the dissemination workshop on utilization of market wastes held on 15-16 April 2004, Fairway Hotel, Kampala, Uganda.
  11. Enhancing the role of Makerere University in technology generation and dissemination.
  12. Effect of crop wastes derived soil fertility amendments on character, pest infestation and yield of cabbage. Proceedings of the XXII International Congress of Entomology
  13. Agroforestry illustrated. A teaching aid for the short course on agroforestry at the Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University.
  14. Agroforestry approach to land use.A training manual for extension agents.A teaching aid for the short course on agroforestry at the Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University.
  15. Gender Dimensions of Rural Producer Organizations in Uganda
  16. Factors Affecting Effective Performance of Rural Producers

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