Sekiranda, S.B.K., Okot-Okumu, J., Bugenyi, F.W.B., Ndawula, L.M. and Gandhi, P (2004): Variation in composition of macro-invertebrates as an indication of water quality status in three bays in Lake Victoria. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9:396-411.
In Kampala City like most towns in Uganda, provision of treated piped water has been concentrated in high-income zones with very little improvement in the high-density, low-income areas where the majority of the urban population lives. This has left protected springs as a major source of domestic water. These springs are “protected” during construction by providing provisions in two parts; a permeable section of gravel and sand into which the source waters enter, and a dam which prevents the water from bypassing the catchment or reservoir. A perforated supply pipe leads the water out of the reservoir. Very few studies have been carried out to determine the extent of pollution of protected springs and none on the comparison of protected springs in high- and low-density settlements. This study, carried out both in the dry and wet seasons, was aimed at establishing the water quality of protected springs in Kampala and contributory pollution factors. Both high- and low-density settlement areas were studied. Survey using questionnaires and field observations were done to identify sources of pollutants and to relate them to human activities and explain the possible causes and sources of pollution of the springs. Pollution (chemical and biological) levels were higher in protected springs located in high-density settlement areas and this was attributed to poor waste-management practices. Human activities like construction of pit latrines, some located less than 5 m upstream of protected springs, animal husbandry and indiscriminate dumping of wastes contributed to the presence of high levels of chemical and biological pollutants in the protected springs. Average concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (49.5 mg/l) and ammonium-nitrogen (7.3 mg/l) and faecal coliforms (1.8 × 104 no./100 ml) were recorded. Pollution levels were higher in the rainy season and this was attributed to storm water runoff and its infiltration into the ground water. The results indicate that water from protected springs poses a health risk to the communities using it.
- Protected springs;
Nsubuga, F. B., Kansiime, F. and Okot-Okumu, J (2004): Pollution of protected springs in relation to high and low density settlements in Kampala- Uganda. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 29:1153-1159.