• 1

    The School of Agricultural Sciences (SAS)

  • 2

    The School of Food Technologies, Nutrition and Bio Engineering (SFTNB)

  • 3

    The School of Forestry, Environmental and Geographical Sciences (SFEGS)

  • 4

    The Department of Environmental Management (Former MUIENR)

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Interactions between a crinivirus, an ipomovirus and a potyvirus in coinfected sweetpotato plants.

Abstract

Novel and severe symptoms of chlorosis, rugosity, leaf strapping and dark green islands, designated as sweetpotato severe mosaic disease (SPSMD), were caused by dual infection of Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV; Ipomovirus) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; Crinivirus) in three East African sweetpotato cultivars (Tanzania, Dimbuka and New Kawogo). The storage root yield was reduced by ~80%, as compared with healthy plants under screenhouse conditions in Uganda. Plants infected with SPMMV or SPCSV alone showed nonsignificant or 50% yield reduction, respectively. SPCSV reduced resistance to SPMMV in sweetpotato, similar to the situation with resistance to Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; Potyvirus) that breaks down following infection with SPCSV, followed by development of sweet potato virus disease (SPVD). In single virus infections with SPMMV and SPFMV or their coinfection, cvs Tanzania and Dimbuka were initially systemically infected, displayed symptoms and contained readily detectable virus titres, but new leaves were symptomless with very low virus titres, indicating recovery from disease. In contrast, cv. New Kawogo remained symptomless and contained low SPMMV and SPFMV titres following graft inoculation. These moderate and high levels of resistance to SPMMV and SPFMV, respectively, were lost and cultivars succumbed to a severe disease following coinfection with SPCSV. The synergistic interactions increased titres of SPMMV and SPFMV RNA by ~1000-fold as quantified by real-time PCR, whereas SPCSV titres were reduced twofold, indicating an antagonistic interaction. Coinfection with SPMMV and SPFMV caused no detectable changes in virus titres or symptom severity.

Keywords:

  • antagonisms;
  • Ipomoea batatas;
  • nucleic acid spot hybridization;
  • quantitative PCR;
  • synergism

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Integrating remote sensing data and rapid appraisals for land-cover change analyses in Uganda.

Abstract

Rapid population growth, unsustainable land use, and a pervasively degrading landscape are components of a dominant paradigm regarding African development. While recent work articulating the ‘misreading’ of the African landscape have begun to challenge this paradigm, much work remains regarding the pervasiveness and character of this misread. A method is presented for investigating mechanisms of land-cover change that combines remotely sensed data, archival data, and rapid appraisals in a way less influenced by dominant paradigms. We present a case where increasing human activity is resulting in accumulation of woody biomass on edaphic grasslands of a forest–grassland mosaic, rather than the expansion of grasslands at the expense of forests as is currently understood in that area. These increases in biomass are stimulated by anthropogenic influences that are shaped by institutional and edaphic factors. We do not claim that resources are being pervasively enhanced across sub-Saharan Africa under conditions of population growth, but that there may be many mechanisms of change, resulting in both degradation and enhancement, occurring simultaneously across sub-Saharan Africa or even intra-regionally within a nation under these conditions. The integration and application of these methods serve to improve applied analyses of land-cover change to better characterize these mechanisms, and avoid the wrong policy prescriptions. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords:

  • conservation;
  • land tenure;
  • land use;
  • remote sensing;
  • deforestation;
  • Uganda

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Understanding the Long-Term Stability of West Mengo Forest Reserve Boundaries.

Abstract

Despite heavy pressure and disturbance, state property regimes have stemmed deforestation within protected areas of the West Mengo region of Uganda for over 50 yr. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the process of creation and maintenance of forest reserve boundaries in the West Mengo region of Uganda to identify why these boundaries have largely remained stable over the long term under conditions in which they may be predicted to fail. The dramatic boundary stability in West Mengo we attribute to key aspects of institutional design and enforcement of boundaries.

 Key words: common pool resources; institutional arrangements; forest governance; remote sensing; conservation; Uganda

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The role of community based institutions in sustainable management of forest, water and soil: A case study of Mount Elgon ecosystem, Uganda.

Abstract

"This review paper is on the role played by community based institutions in the sustainable management of forest, soil and water in the last two decades at Mount Elgon, Uganda. "The paper explores how the state can create good conditions for community based institutions to participate in natural resource management without itself taking a much active role. The case of Mount Elgon, Uganda is where NGOs and CBOs by default, 'mushroomed' to fill in the gap created by the central government, which had failed to manage the mountain natural resources since 1970. In the early 1990s, the government realized its weakness and put in place good policies and legislation, which made community based institutions to blossom, and without even proper coordination mechanism, yielded a significant positive impact towards the sustainable management of Mount Elgon ecosystem. "The paper evaluates some key indicators used to determine the successes and failures of CBIs. Among them are, the contribution of CBIs to policy and legislative reforms and adherence to good sustainable management principles. The level of capacity building especially in the areas of strengthening of local peoples' rights, negotiation power and self- governance is discussed. Another indicator analyzed is the level of promotion of management of livelihood assets. Also review is level of strengthening financial availability and mechanism towards (un) sustainability. The level of reduction to vulnerability is considered. Promotion of environmental benefits and the contribution by CBIs towards reduction of threats on biodiversity was evaluated "The analysis compared the rich experience of mount Elgon case with related national resource management practices elsewhere. The paper then ends by making some recommendations on the way forward for the management of the ecosystem, which offers good lesson learning for the region and the entire global community."

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More Articles ...

  1. Traditional knowledge in Bulamogi County - Uganda: Importance to sustainable livelihoods, p 98-105.
  2. Comparative analysis of pest management technologies in cowpea and groundnut production in eastern Uganda.
  3. Threegenetically divergent lineages of the Oryx in eastern Africa: Evidence for an ancientintrogressive hybridization.
  4. Mondia whitei, a socio-economically important plant.
  5. An initial assessment of the use of wetland plants as substrates for periphyton production in seasonal wetland fishponds in Uganda.
  6. Floating mats: their occurrence and influence on shoreline distribution of emergent vegetation.
  7. Supply pontential and agronomic value of urban market crop pastes. PhDB Thesis Makerere University.
  8. Incidence and severity of maize ear rots and factors responsible for their occurrence in Uganda.
  9. Comparison of the effect of market crop wastes and chemical soil fertility amendments on insect pests, natural enemies and yield of Brassica oleracea.
  10. Effect of organic versus conventional fertilizers on insect pests, natural enemies and yield of Phaseolus vulgaris.
  11. Occurrence and species range of insect pests of simsim in northern and eastern Uganda.
  12. The tenets of agroforestry.An outline of the salient features of agroforestry.Makerere University
  13. The influence of forest variation and possible effects of poaching on duiker abundance at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.
  14. Spatial distribution of primates in a mosaic of colonizing and old growth forest at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.
  15. Peanut Aflatoxin Levels on Farms and in Markets of Uganda
  16. Factors Affecting Aflatoxin Contamination of Harvested Maize in the Three Agroecological Zones of Uganda.
  17. The effect of storage time and agroecological zone on mould incidence and aflatoxin contamination of maize from traders in Uganda
  18. Confined incubation and brooding as strategies for improving smallholder rural poultry productivity: An on-farm evaluation of a farmer
  19. Effect of hive type and location on honey bee colonisation rate and pest prevalence.
  20. Studies on adult body size and its effects on pre-weaning kid weight of Mubende goats in Uganda
  21. Production of composite bricks from sawdust using Portland Cement as a binder.
  22. Geophagy in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda A Multidisciplinary Study

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