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Technical and institutional capacity in local organizations to manage decentralised forest resources in Uganda.

Abstract

Uganda is one of the sub-Saharan African countries that has devolved the management of forest resources. Meaningful devolution, however, requires that local governments and other community organisations should have capacity in terms of adequate and competent human resources, finance, information, skills, and the appropriate legal framework to effectively deliver services. This paper examines the technical and institutional capacity in selected local organisations to manage decentralised forest resources in Uganda. We found that technical and institutional capacity to implement decentralised forest governance exists in local organisations through partnerships with other actors in the productive use of the available resources. Local organisations mobilised and managed human, physical and financial resources for decentralised forest management. They also demonstrated the capacity to make and implement integrated plans and budgets and formulated byelaws regulating forest use. Our findings, however, revealed that none of the organisations had either the legal mandate or sufficient human and physical resources to govern forest resources unilaterally due to inadequate devolution of decision-making powers and inadequate fiscal support from the central government. The findings suggest a need for local organisations to recruit more technical staff, strengthen internal sources of revenue and networking amongst organisations both at local and national government levels for effective management of decentralised forest resources.      
Southern African Forestry Journal
– No. 208, November 2006

 Keywords: capacity; decentralisation; forest resources; local organisations; Uganda

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Understanding the integhrative process of captive Chimpanzees pantroglydytes in the Uganda Wild Life Centre (2007)

Abstract

 Over a period of 30 years between 1967 and 1997, the population of wild chimpanzees Pan troglodytes in their natural habitats of tropical Africa has declined from 600 000 to less than 200 000 and is still declining thus raising global concern and a great need for their ex situ conservation. In the wild, chimpanzees live in communities and this is mimicked in captivity. For ex situ conservation of wild chimpanzees to be effective, efforts should be made to ensure acceptance of newly introduced individuals by those chimpanzees already living in zoo communities. This study was first conducted at the Uganda Wildlife Education Centre (UWEC) from October 2004 to March 2005 and additional information was gathered between September 2006 and January 2007 in order to understand their integration process. Five chimpanzees were observed and data were collected concerning their feeding habits, behavior, weight changes and health status. Direct observations, recorded information and participatory discussions with veterinary doctors and UWEC managers provided additional information about captive chimpanzees. From our findings, wild chimpanzees had more diseases than captive ones which in turn affected their feeding, social behavior and activity levels. Our results also show that understanding the integration process of captive chimpanzees is essential for both ex situ and in situ conservation because captive chimpanzees though given much attention, they still reflect some behavior of the wild ones. Our results are important in conservation especially in situations where reintroduction may be the only option [Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(3): 399 –407, 2007].

Keywords: Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, Conservation, ex situ, in situ, Integration, Origin, UWEC

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Physical and Mechanical Properties of some Less-Utilized Tropical timber tree species growing in Uganda.

Abstract

 Variation in some physical and mechanical properties of the wood in four less utilised tree species native to Uganda was examined. One mature tree each of Antiaris toxicaria, Celtis mildbraedii, Maesopsis eminii and Alstonia boonei was selected from Budongo forest in Masindi district and felled using a chain saw. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and stem length for each tree were measured before and after felling. Each log was cross cut into three 150 cm long billets at 5-10% of stem length (breast height 1.3m), 45% of stem length and 75% of stem length. Billets were sawn by through and through method for basic density and strength properties determination. International Standard Organisation (ISO) 3129 (1975) and ISO 3349 (1975) standards were followed to prepare test specimens and moisture content determined in accordance with ISO 3130 procedures. Strength properties were determined using a Monsanto Tensometer wood-testing machine. Tests were based on International Standard Organisation (ISO) procedures BS 373 (1957) and ISO 3133 (1975). Testing was carried out in a laboratory under temperatures of 20 3 C and relative humidity of 65 3 % based on British Standards BS 373 (1957). Basic density and strength properties of modulus of rapture, modulus of elasticity, shear strength, cleavage strength and compressive strength varied significantly (P<0.05) in the radial and axial directions within individual tree species. The properties also decreased moderately from the butt end to the top end. Basic density and strength properties decreased moderately from the pith to the centre of the radius, then increased to the bark. The strength properties of C. mildbraedii were comparable with those of M. excelsa and Khaya anthotheca that are well known and commercially utilised species. It was concluded that some lesser-utilised species are of equivalent or superior strength properties compared to commercially valued tree species such as mahogany. Lesser-utilised species should therefore be promoted as substitutes for other commonly utilised hardwoods within the range, thereby reducing pressure on the well-known and valued timbers.

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Decentralised governance and ecological health: why local institutions fail to moderate deforestation in Mpigi district of Uganda.

Abstract

 The outcomes of decentralization policies on the delivery of forestry sector services and ecological health remain ambiguous. Several scholars warn that there is insufficient empirical data to support the assumption that decentralization of forest resources results in better or worse forest governance. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of local institutions crafted during the implementation of decentralization reforms of the mid-1990s in Mpigi District of Uganda to moderate forest degradation. We observed cases of both institutional success and failure in forestry management within the district following the decentralization reforms suggesting that decentralization of authority over forests to local user groups, traditional leaders, or officials of local governments may not always produce incentives to prevent a decline in forest extent or condition in the entire landscape. The outcomes of decentralization reforms in the forest sector may be more a function of factors such as 1) the nature of the forests, location, patchiness, and production of external environmental goods and services; 2) the level and strength of market signals for both forest products and crops grown on forest soils; and 3) the diversity of stakeholders and their values and dependence on specific extents and condition of the forest patch.

Key words: Decentralization, forests, deforestation, governance, forest rule enforcement and compliance

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Status of non-cultivated food plants in Bulamogi County, Uganda.

Abstract

 This study was carried out to document the non-cultivated food plants (NCFPs) of Bulamogi County, Uganda. It formed part of a wider study meant to document all edible plant species in the county with the general aim of strengthening food security. The study was conducted using semi-structured interviews. Fifty-nine NCFPs were recorded in the county. These grow as weeds, wild plants and semi-cultivated crops. They are equally distributed between herbaceous (54%) and woody (46%) growth habits. They yield fruits (31, n ¼ 59), leaves (11, n ¼ 59) or leaves and stems (10, n ¼ 59) for consumption. A short list of 27 NCFPs with potential for domestication is suggested here for further study.

 Key words: food security, management systems, non-cultivated food plants, Uganda

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Distinguishing forest tree communities in Kibale National Park, western Uganda using ordination and classification methods.

Abstract

A study of spatial variation in tree community structure and species composition in the Kibale National Park, western Uganda was conducted. Tree communities were compared at five sites namely K-14, K-15 and K-30 at Kanyawara in the north, Ngogo in the central part of the forest and Mainaro in the southern part. All trees 10-cm diameter at breast height were censused along belt transects covering a total of 15 ha in all sites. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify forest tree communities and species associations. Using cluster analysis, two species assemblages emerged: the Mainaro, Ngogo and K-15 cluster and the K-30 and K-14 cluster. Principal component analysis revealed the descriptive species for the northern and southern sites.

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More Articles ...

  1. Antiplasmodial Activity of Extracts of Selected Medicinal Plants Used by Local Communities in Western Uganda for Treatment of Malaria.
  2. Deworming efficacy of Albizia anthelmintica in Uganda: preliminary findings.
  3. Characterization of the natural habitat of Toddalia asiatica in the Lake Victoria basin: soil characteristics and seedling establishment.
  4. The influence of light and temperature on the germination of two Ugandan medicinal trees. African Journal of Ecology 46, 565–571
  5. Agroforrestry Approach to land use.
  6. Manipulation of time of planting and insecticide application to control the major pests of sesame in Uganda.
  7. Supply pontential and agronomic value of urban market crop pastes.
  8. Incidence and severity of maize ear rots and factors responsible for their occurrence in Uganda.
  9. Population genetic structure of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) in Uganda: evidence for a strong philopatry among warthogs and social Structure breakdown in a disturbed population.
  10. The influence of light and temperature on the germination of two Ugandan medicinal trees.
  11. The ethnobotany and ecological status of Albizia coriaria Welw. ex Oliv. in Buwagi and Namizi parishes, Uganda.
  12. The ethnobotany and ecological status of 16 woody species of Gadumire Sub-county, Uganda.
  13. Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.
  14. Shoreline vegetation distribution in relation to wave exposure and bay characteristics in a tropical great lake, Lake Victoria.
  15. Carbon and water cycles in tropical papyrus wetlands.
  16. Plug-flow modelling of phosphorus retention in papyrus wetlands.
  17. A simulation model for nitrogen retention in a papyrus wetland near Lake Victoria, Uganda (East Africa).
  18. Functioning and dynamics of wetland vegetation of Lake Victoria; an Overview
  19. Socio-economic perspectives of handling used plastic and polythene waste in urban and peri-urban areas of Uganda.
  20. Technological change and efficiency under transaction costs: The case of smallholder sorghum production in Eastern Uganda.
  21. Proceedings of the dissemination workshop on utilization of market wastes
  22. The potential of market crop wastes as soil fertility amendments in integrated pest management in vegetable production systems in Uganda.
  23. Effect of plant population on pest incidence and damage on improved sesame varieties and mixed landraces.
  24. Agroforrestry Approach to land use.Final Report.Makerere University.Capacity Building Programme for Decentralization
  25. Manipulation of time of planting and insecticide application to control the major pests of sesame in Uganda. P.239-241.
  26. Understanding the integration process of native chimpanzees Pan troglodytes in the Uganda Wildlife Education Centre
  27. Production, seasonality and management of chimpanzee food trees in Budongo Forest, Uganda

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