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    The School of Agricultural Sciences (SAS)

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    The School of Food Technologies, Nutrition and Bio Engineering (SFTNB)

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    The School of Forestry, Environmental and Geographical Sciences (SFEGS)

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    The Department of Environmental Management (Former MUIENR)

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Low diversity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype C virus in Kenya: Evidence for probable vaccine strain re-introductions in the field.


Most viruses are maintained by complex processes of evolution that enable them to survive but also complicate efforts to achieve their control. In this paper, we study patterns of evolution in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype C virus isolates from Kenya, one of the few places in the world where serotype C has been endemic and is suspected to remain. The nucleotide sequences encoding the capsid protein VP1 from eight isolates collected between 1967 and 2004 were analysed for patterns of sequence divergence and evolution. Very low nucleotide diversity (p = 0·0025) and remarkably little change (only five segregating sites and three amino-acid changes) were observed in these isolates collected over a period of almost 40 years. We interpret these results as being suggestive of re-introductions of the vaccine strain into the field. The implications of these results for the maintenance of serotype C FMD virus and the use of vaccination as a control measure in Kenya are discussed.

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Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda.


 In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after FMD quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. Oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir in Kiboga. FMD virus RNA was detected by diagnostic RT-PCR in nine of the 12 tissue samples. Part of the coding region for the capsid protein VP1 was amplified and sequenced. All samples were identified as belonging to the SAT 2 serotype. The implications for FMD control of both virus introduction into Uganda and the presence of carrier animals following outbreaks are discussed.

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Prevalence Estimates of Antibodies Towards Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Small Ruminants in Uganda.


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda with control strategies focusing on vaccination of cattle, while small ruminants are largely ignored. In order for Uganda to establish effective control strategies, it is crucial that te ephidemiology of the disease is fully understood. This study summarizes results of serological investigations of sheep and goats for antibodies to FMDV from four districts in 2006 following an FMD outbreak in the region and from an attempted comprehensive random sampling in two districts in 2007. Antibodies were quantified and serotyped using competitive ELISA for antibodies towards non-structural proteins (NSP) and structural proteins towards serotype O, and blocking ELISA for antibodies towards the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). In 2006, sheep and goats in Bushenyi and Isingiro districts were free from antibodies towards FMDV, while herds in Kasese and Mbarara districts excluding Kahendero village were all positive for antibodies towards NSP and SP-O. In 2007, mean prevalence estimates of antibodies towards FMDV NSP was 14% in goats and 22% in sheep in Kasese district, while Bushenyi was still free. The difference between these two districts probably reflects different levels of FMDV challenge attributed to the variation in exposure rates which again in part may be as a result of the differing husbandry practices. Contrary to 2006, with clear antibodies towards serotype O, the serotype-specificity of the antibodies was less clear in 2007, as antibodies towards both serotype O and SAT serotypes were identified. Our results show that goats and sheep are infected during FMD outbreaks, and that they may be useful for determining the serotype of FMD outbreaks in Uganda, if they are sampled shortly after an outbreak.

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Ethnoveterinary knowledge in pastoral Karamoja, Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 122 (2): 273-293


Ethnopharmacological relevance

The people of Karamoja of northern Uganda chiefly rely on ethnoveterinaryknowledge (EVK) to control common livestock health problems. In spite of cattle's central role in Karamojong culture and livelihoods, there has been no systematic recording of their ethnoveterinary plant-based cures to date.

Aim of study

To document the remedies used to treat livestock diseases, their preparation and administration.


Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, guided questionnaires, group discussions, direct observations and collection trips.


We present information on 209 plant species and 18 non-plant materials. Plant species are distributed over 116 genera and 54 families. The most common medicinal use was treatment against anaplasmosis.Balanites aegyptiacusCarissa spinarumWarburgia salutaris and Harrisonia abyssinica had the most uses of all species. All different plant parts were used; bark and underground parts were exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most remedies listed used a single ingredient, typically soaked in water; only 12.8% remedies used multiple plants. The route of administration was primarily oral followed by topical applications. Almost all plants are collected from the wild; none of the few cultivated plants used had been planted for medicinal purposes.


The pastoralists in the study site possess a wealth of EVK which they use to maintain animal health. Their rich knowledge and high diversity of plants were recorded here for the first time.


APG II, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group; 

ECF, east coast fever; 

EVK, ethnoveterinaryknowledge;

KACHEP, Karamoja Christian Ethnoveterinary Program; 

NGO, non-governmental organization; 

TK, traditional knowledge


Increasing fish production from wetlands at Lake Victoria, Uganda using organically manured seasonal wetland fish ponds.


The processes driving primary productivity and its impacts on fish production were investigated in field trials in eight seasonal earthen wetland ponds 'Fingerponds' (192 m2) in Uganda between 2003 and 2005. The ponds were stocked by the seasonal flood with predominantly Oreochromis spp. at densities ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 fish m-2. Chicken manure (521, 833 or 1,563 kg ha-1) was applied fortnightly. Results showed that primary productivity was enhanced with maximum average net primary productivity (±Standard Error) of 11.7 (±2.5) g O2 m-2 day-1 at the Gaba site and 8.3 (±1.5) g O2 m-2 day-1 at the Walukuba site. Net fish yields were higher in manured ponds with up to 2,670 kg ha-1 yield for a 310 day growth period compared to less than 700 kg ha-1 in unmanured ponds. Fish production was limited mainly by high recruitment, falling water levels, light limitation from high suspended solids and turbidity, and low zooplankton biomass. It was concluded that Fingerponds have a high potential for sustainable fish production and can contribute to the alleviation of protein shortages amongst the riparian communities around Lake Victoria. Production can be enhanced further with improved stock management.

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Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa: Auditing and characterization.


 Worldwide, fish industry wastes are an important contaminant having an impact on the environment. The recovery of value added products from these residues constitutes an important waste reduction strategy for the industry. In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria generate large proportions of both solid and liquid wastes. However, no thorough auditing and characterization of the waste has been done that would guide potential value addition through bioconversions and waste management. Auditing by surveying and mapping the fish processing industries was conducted along the lake. Waste quantification was done using specific guidelines for assessment of fish wastes. Analysis of the waste was carried out using standard methods. Annual solid waste and wastewater generation was estimated at 36,000 tonnes and 1,838,000 m , respectively. The wastewater generated was high strength with a total chemical oxygen demand of 12,400 mg/l and solid content of 5,580 mg/l. The wastewater contained 6,160 mg/l of lipids and 2,000 mg/l of protein.                     
The Nutrient content was 20 mg/l of total phosphorous, 340 mg/l organic nitrogen and 61 mg/l of ammonia nitrogen. The current fish waste management systems in place were found to be neither efficient nor profitable, thus profitable options of fish waste utilization and waste reduction strategies are imperative. Modern and economically viable options of fish waste value addition, decision scheme and waste reduction strategies have been highlighted in this paper. In conclusion, large amounts of fish waste generated are a rich source of lipids and proteins, which could be utilized for production of value added products through bioconversions.

 Key words: Nile perch, fish waste, auditing, characterization, value addition, utilization.

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Variation of water quality in Kakira catchment area, Jinja – Uganda.


Kakira Sugar Works Limited (KSWL) owns one of the largest commercial sugarcane plantations and factory in Uganda. KSWL uses fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides to enhance crop yields. This study was carried out to assess the effect of the KSWL sugarcane plantation on the water resources of Lake Victoria.Waterquality assessment within and without the sugarcane plantation was carried out for six months over two seasons (wet and dry) and these were tested for physico-chemical parameters. Temperature values at all the sampling sites were <35 °C. pH values at all the sampling sites were within the range of 6.0–8.5 except S4 which was located in the outgrowers’ field (pH = 5.9). Electrical conductivity values on the stream draining through the workers settlement was high (1412.3 µS/cm) compared to the other sampling sites which had values <300 µS/cm. NH4–N and TN values at all the sampling sites were <10 mg/l. Although TP and O–PO4–P values for all the streams were within standards recommended by the National Environment Standard (Standards for Discharge of Effluents onto Water or on Land Regulations) of 1999 for Uganda, the sampling sites including the one located at the lake did not qualify to be categorized as being pristine. Nutrient loads were higher during the wet season than in the dry season. Nutrient loads from the estate were higher than those from the outgrowers’ field. In spite of the fact that nutrient concentrations were within permissible limits, it was concluded that annual nutrient loads of nitrogen and phosphorus could in a long run increase the trophic levels of Lake Victoria.

Keywords: Lake Victoria; Sugarcane estates; Waterquality management; Uganda

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More Articles ...

  1. Biogas energy from family-sized digesters in Uganda: Critical factors and policy implications.
  2. Urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas in Uganda.
  3. Factors influencing waste separation and utilization among households in the Lake Victoria crescent, Uganda.
  4. Healer-driven ethnoveterinary knowledge diffusion among semi-nomadic pastoralists in Karamoja, Uganda.
  5. Linking local communities livelihoods and forest conservation in Masindi district, North western Uganda.
  6. Land Tenure Systems and Extension Methods: Assessment of Agroforestry Adoption in Kalungu subcounty Masaka district Uganda.
  7. Handbook on identification and management of pests and diseases of cabbage and other brassicas in Uganda
  8. Effect of intercropping and a bio-pesticide on population dynamics of two aphid species, Brevicoryne brassicae and Aphis gossypi (Homoptera: Aphididae).
  9. Effect of spacing and thinning date on the performance of nakati (Solanumaethiopicum).
  10. Resilience to Global Economic Crises and Climate Trends: Impacts of a Livelihood Support Program in Rural Uganda.
  11. Harnessing Community Capitals for Livelihood Enhancement: Experiences from a Livelihood Program in Rural Uganda.
  12. Analysis of the production and marketing channels of local chickens and their products in central Uganda. Final Project Report.
  13. Ankole cattle pastoralists are right when they claim to accurately memorise pedigrees of their herds: Molecular evidence and implications.
  14. Effects of hive type and tree shade on colonization rate and pest prevalence of honeybee (Apis Mellifera) colonies in Central Uganda.
  15. Okuganyulwa mu Bulunzi bw
  16. Beekeeping: Theory and Practice. Fountain Improved Farming Series. Farming Guide No.8.
  17. Factors associated with fumonisins contamination of maize in Uganda.
  18. Amending Soils with Hydrogels Increases the Biomass of Nine Tree Species under Non water Stress Conditions

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