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Contains all publications for 2005.

Patterns of frugivory of the Budongo Forest chimpanzees, Uganda

Abstract

Frugivory patterns of the chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda were studied between June 2000 and August 2001. Chimpanzee feeding habitats, movement, group size and food eaten were assessed using focal and scan sampling. It was found that fruits were scarce during the dry season, when chimpanzees appeared and moved in large groups over long distances and raided farms at the forest edge. Chimpanzee movement out of the forest to forage was influenced by seasonal fluctuations in availability of preferred foods as some cultivated crops are perennial. Presence of chimpanzees in a specific feeding habitat was related to the availability of edible fruits both within and between months, suggesting that the presence of food may influence chimpanzee movement patterns. Therefore, a good understanding of patterns of frugivory is essential for making informed decisions about conservation of chimpanzees and other frugivores like birds and monkeys in Budongo as different forest habitats are under varying human pressure because of logging and other forms of utilization. Key words: chimpanzee group size, feeding habitats, movements, seasons

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Paterns of Crop Raiding by Primates around the Budongo Forest Reserve Uganda

Keywords: Budongo Forest Reserve, Conservation, crop raiding, farmers, primates, uganda, wild animals

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Unravelling the genetic diversity of the three main viruses involved in Sweet Potato Virus Disease (SPVD), and its practical implications.

Abstract

SUMMARY Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) is a widely grown food crop, in which the most important diseases are caused by viruses. Genetic variability of three widely distributed sweetpotato viruses was analysed using data from 46 isolates of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), 16 isolates of Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) and 25 isolates of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), of which 19, seven and six isolates, respectively, are newly characterized. Division of SPFMV into four genetic groups (strains) according to phylogenetic analysis of coat protein (CP) encoding sequences revealed that strain EA contained the East African isolates of SPFMV but none from elsewhere. In contrast, strain RC contained ten isolates from Australia, Africa, Asia and North America. Strain O contained six heterogeneous isolates from Africa, Asia and South America. The seven strain C isolates from Australia, Africa, Asia, and North and South America formed a group that was genetically distant from the other SPFMV strains. SPMMV isolates showed a high level of variability with no discrete strain groupings. SPCSV isolates from East Africa were phylogenetically distant to SPCSV isolates from elsewhere. Only from East Africa were adequate data available for different isolates of the three viruses to estimate the genetic variability of their local populations. The implications of the current sequence information and the need for more such information from most sweetpotato-growing regions of the world are discussed in relation to virus diagnostics and breeding for virus resistance.

Tairo, F., Mukasa, S.B., Jones, R.A.C., Kullaya, A., Rubaihayo, P.R. and Valkonen, J.P.T. (2005): Unravelling the genetic diversity of the three main viruses involved in Sweet Potato Virus Disease (SPVD), and its practical implications. Molecular Plant Pathology 6: 199-211.

Tuber utilisation options among sweet potato producers in eastern Uganda.

Abstract

A survey involving 191 respondents was conducted in Mbale and Kumi in eastern Uganda to get an insight into the current state of tuber utilisation among sweet potato producers in the country. Sweet potato farmers produced and consumed six sweet potato products, that is, fresh sweet potato tubers, pit stored sweet potatoes, amukeke, inginyo, amukeke flour and inginyo flour. Farmers on average consumed 11% of their fresh sweet potato tuber output, 24% of the amukeke output, 13% of the inginyo output, 31% of the pit stored sweet potato output, 100% of the inginyo flour output and 100% of the amukeke flour output. They sold 28% of fresh tuber output, 34% of the amukeke output, 48% of the inginyo output and 42% of the pit stored sweet potato output. They lost 9% of their fresh sweet potato tubers, 10% of the amukeke output, 13% of the inginyo output and 27% of the pit stored sweet potato output. They also processed 29% of their fresh sweet potato output into either amukeke or inginyo or both, 32% of the amukeke output was further processed into amukeke flour and 26.2% of inginyo was processed into inginyo flour.

Key words: Ipomoea batatas, storage


 

Engoru P, Mugisha J. and Bashaasha B. (2005): Tuber utilisation options among sweet potato producers in eastern Uganda. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Kampala, 5-9 December 2005, 7:715-720

Determinants of demand for purchased fertilisers in Mbale district in Uganda.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine commercial fertiliser demand in Mbale district. Specifically, to determine the average farm level demand for fertiliser and the factors affecting it. Determinants of demand were examined by log-linear regression using OLS. While descriptive statistics are used to examine the average farm level fertiliser demand. A total of 360 households were selected in a three stage sampling procedure, using a clustered sampling design in the first two stages and then random sampling in the third stage. The average farm level fertiliser demanded in the second season of 2003 was 46.49 kg/ha. The factors that significantly influenced demand for fertiliser were input market access, farmers’ experience in fertilizer use, formal education of farmer, extension services received, household income, group membership and family labour. The study recommended that input business be made attractive in remote areas by offering special credit to rural farmers; government and stakeholders should encourage formation of farmer groups and associations and develop self-sustainable rural financial institutions to encourage internal finance mobilizations within farmer groups.

Key words: Education, extension, labour


 

Dramadri J., Hyuha T.S. and Mugisha J. (2005):  Determinants of demand for purchased fertilisers in Mbale district in Uganda. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Kampala, 5-9 December 2005, 7:771-774

Transaction costs analysis of input demand by smallholder cotton producers in Eastern Uganda.

Abstract

Cotton farming in Uganda is mostly undertaken by smallholder farmers who face invariably several problems such as pests, price volatility, weather uncertainty and transaction costs with limited use of purchased inputs such as cotton seed and pesticides. This study focused on transaction costs that cotton farmers incur. The study therefore aimed at determining transaction costs that cotton farmers incur in production and other factors that effect farmers' demand for seed and pesticides, and estimating the proportion of total variable costs of cotton production accounted for by transaction costs. A survey of cotton farmers was conducted in Kumi and Pallisa districts, well known for cotton production in eastern Uganda The econometric models used in this study stem from the theory of log linear or constant elasticity form of single demand equations. Linear regression analysis of data was executed using SPSS in order to facilitate the estimation of the demand functions for cotton seed and pesticides. Results indicate that the percentage share of transaction costs of total variable costs of production was remarkable (34 %). A break down of total transaction costs revealed that lost revenue formed the greatest percentage (85%), followed by imputed transport costs (11%) and opportunity cost of travel and waiting time (4%), respectively. However, the statistically significant determinants of farmers' demand for cotton seed and pesticides were farmers' income and size of the cotton field. To enable the smallholder farmers who usually plant small areas to cotton, and the low-income farmers who are the majority in the rural areas, policy amendments inclined towards reduction of the transaction costs can improve the profitability of the cotton enterprise by increasing the demand for inputs. Stakeholders in the cotton sub sector responsible for seed distribution should also delivery the seed in time.


Keywords: cotton, input demand, pesticide, transaction costs

Barungi M., Mugisha J. and Nalukenge I. (2005): Transaction costs analysis of input demand by smallholder cotton producers in Eastern Uganda. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development, 21(1):73-83

Six new polymorphic microsatellite loci Isolated and characterised from the African savannah elephant genome.

Abstract
The African savannah elephant ( Loxodonta Africana ) is a ‘keystone’ species that plays a vital role in regulating the dynamics of both plant and animal communities and yet it is endangered and its numbers have been reduced to approximately 500 000 across their entire continental range. Molecular genetic markers are important tools for providing genetic information useful in formulating effective management and conservation strategies for the surviving elephant populations. We describe the isolation and characterization of six new polymorphic microsatellite markers in the African savannah elephant and demonstrate that these loci can be PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-multiplexed, a desirable attribute that saves costs in large-scale microsatellite screening.

Keywords: African elephant,Loxodonta africana, microsatellite markers


 

Nyakaana S, J.B.A Okello, V. Muwanika & HR. Siegismund (2005): Six new polymorphic microsatellite loci Isolated and characterised from the African savannah elephant genome. Molecular Ecology  Notes 5: 223-225

Genetic consequences of war and social strife in sub-saharan Africa: the case of Uganda’s large mammals.

Abstract

The spectacular diversity of sub-Saharan Africa's large mammals was hit by constant social strife and civil war over three decades (1970s-1990s) leading to localized extinctions and drastic reductions in population sizes for many species. These localized extinctions and reduction in population sizes undermine the ability of species to evolve and adapt to changing environments as a result of genetic erosion. The genetic consequences of the widespread reduction of population sizes as a result of social strife in sub-Saharan Africa are not well documented. H ere we review past molecular genetic data that are relevant to understanding of the genetic effects of war and social strife on Africa's wildlife. Uganda was probably one of the worst affected countries. Before 1972, Uganda had large herds and a variety of mammals. However, following the breakdown of law and order, some large mammals were exterminated while other populations were decimated. Recent results of genetic surveys in five large mammals in L ganda (the common warthog, savanna elephant, savanna buffalo, common hippopotamus and Uganda kob) suggest a substantial erosion of genetic diversity in the elephants and warthogs of Queen Elizabeth National Park. Although the rest of the studied mammals show no direct loss of genetic diversity, strong genetic differentiation was observed among most populations separated by even short geographical distances, indicating an increase in the 'between' component of genetic diversity that could have been accelerated by genetic erosion due to decrease in population sizes


 

Muwanika BV, Nyakaana S & HR. Siegismund (2005): Genetic consequences of war and social strife in sub-saharan Africa: the case of Uganda’s large mammals. African Zoology 40(1):107-1153

Morphometric and genetic differentiation of two Labeo victorianus populations in Lake Victoria.

  • Abstract:

 <I>Labeo victorianus</I>, a fish species endemic to the Lake Victoria basin, once supported a commercial fishery. Since the 1950s landings have, however, declined due to overfishing. Recent surveys have found only two extant populations in Uganda; one in the Sio River and a second in the Kagera River. Fish from the Kagera River populations are significantly larger and exhibit differences in their reproductive biology. Using both genetic (control region sequences of mitochondrial DNA) and morphometric (truss and non-truss) characters, we investigated the level of genetic and morphological distinctiveness of the two remaining populations. Analyses of the mitochondrial control region sequence data (446 base pairs) did not show clear genetic differentiation between the populations (F<sub>ST</sub> =-0.002, P > 0.05). Nonetheless, several private haplotypes were observed (16 haplotypes out of a total of 19) suggesting that a substantial amount of genetic distinctiveness exists between the two populations. Principal component analysis of twenty truss and nine non-truss variables, and heteroscedastic <I>t-</I>tests on all but one measurement, indicated that 'size' rather than 'shape' separate out fish from the two rivers. There was, therefore, a substantial degree of congruence between genetic and morphological data. These results have been interpreted in light of the recent population history of <I>L. victorianus</I> in Lake Victoria.

RutaisireJ, BoothJA, MasembeC, NyakaanaS and VB. Muwanika.(2005): Morphometric and genetic differentiation of two Labeo  victorianus populations in Lake Victoria.  African  Zoology 40 (2)

Relative efficiency of sawmill types operating in softwood plantations in Uganda.

Kambugu R. Kyeyune,  A. Y. Banana, J. R. S. KaboggozaA. Zziwa and J.G Agea(2005): Relative efficiency of sawmill types operating in softwood plantations in Uganda. Uganda Journal of Agricultural sciences. Vol. 11 no.1


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