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Contains all publications for 2006.

Geophagy in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda A Multidisciplinary Study

Keywords: Chimpanzees, Pan Troglodytes Schweinfurthii, Geophagy, ex situ, in situ, Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, Origin, UWEC

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Production of composite bricks from sawdust using Portland Cement as a binder.

Abstract

A study was conducted between October 2004 and April 2005 in Kampala District, with the objective of investigating the feasibility of making sawdust-cement composites using saw dust. A total of 48 bricks were made in the Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation laboratory based on volume ratios of sawdust to cement (3:2 and 2:1). Mass was measured using a weighing balance and density calculated from mass and volume of the bricks. The composites were tested for compressive strength using a universal testing machine, as they cracked due to compression. The mean compressive strength values were 1.61 N mm-2 and 1.986 N mm-2 for 50 x 50 x 50 mm composites with sawdust to cement ratios of 3:2 and 2:1 respectively; and 1.778 N mm-2 and 2.21N mm-2 for 100x100x100mm composites with sawdust to cement ratios of 3:2 and 2:1 respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences (P<0.05) in strength values of the two compositions. Soaked composites swelled irrespective of the cement to sawdust ratio. The compressive strength for the soaked bricks was approximately 40% of the dry weight strength. The composite bricks were found to be unfit for paving and medium heavy load wall construction. Due to their light weight, by imparting decorative mosaics they can be used for interior wall paneling and decoration, where minimal wetting is experienced.

Keywords: Sawdust, sawmilling, compressive strength, density, composites, cement

 Zziwa, A., S. Kizito, A. Y. Banana, J. R. S. Kaboggoza, R. K. Kambugu

Studies on adult body size and its effects on pre-weaning kid weight of Mubende goats in Uganda

Oluka, J., Sorensen, P. and kugonza, D.R. 2006. Studies on adult body size and its effects on pre-weaning kid weight of Mubende goats in Uganda

Effect of hive type and location on honey bee colonisation rate and pest prevalence.

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of hive type and shading on the rate of hive colonization by natural bee swarms and the level of pest prevalence in the post colonization period. Twenty four bee hives, six of each of the Langstroth, Top-bar, Grass and Basket type were used. All the hives were baited using melted beeswax and three hives of each type were sited either under tree shade or in the open sun. Grass hives were colonized significantly (P < 0.05) earlier (14.8 + 0.01 days) than the Langstroth and Top bar hives (56.5 + 0.11 days). Hives located in the shade were colonised within 40.8 + 2.7 days, significantly (P < 0.05) earlier than hives in the open (47.8 + 2.3 days). The colonies in hives placed in the open absconded earlier (P < 0.05) than those in the shade. Black ants (Monomorium minimum) were present in 29.2% of the hives where colony absconding was observed, followed by mites and wasps in that order of severity. While only 66% of the Top bar hives were attacked by black ants, all Langstroth hives were attacked by both black ants and mites. Only 33% of the Grass hives were attacked by the two major pests. Contrary to common belief, we found pests of honeybees in central Uganda. These included the wax moth (Galleria mellonella), the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), mites and black ants. This study recommends that hives, especially the non-traditional types, should be sited in the shade. Grass hives should be a priority over other types since they colonised earliest and are least attacked by pests. We also recommend strict hive hygiene to control the mites, black ants and other pests that attack the bees.

 Kamatara, K., kugonza, D.R., Nabakabya, D. and Kikonyogo, S. 2006. Effect of hive type and location on honey bee colonisation rate and pest prevalence. 9th Annual Graduate Workshop of the Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University (MUARIK) Proceedings.

Confined incubation and brooding as strategies for improving smallholder rural poultry productivity: An on-farm evaluation of a farmer

kugonza, D.R., Kirembe, G., Tomusange, E., Mulindwa, P., Namussu, R., Lutalo, D. and Drani, E. 2006. Confined incubation and brooding as strategies for improving smallholder rural poultry productivity: An on-farm evaluation of a farmer

The effect of storage time and agroecological zone on mould incidence and aflatoxin contamination of maize from traders in Uganda

Abstract

A study to determine mould incidence and aflatoxin contamination of maize kernels was carried out among dealers (traders) in the three agroecological zones of Uganda. The maize kernels were categorized into those stored for two to six months or for more than six months to one year. Results indicate that the mean moisture content of the kernels was within the recommended safe storage levels of < or =15% but was significantly lower in the Highland maize kernels followed by the Mid-Altitude (dry) kernels while the Mid-Altitude (moist) kernels had the highest levels. Across the agroecological zones, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus were the most predominant fungal genera identified and, among their species, A. niger had the highest incidence, followed by A. flavus, F. verticillioides, A. wentii, A. penicillioides and Rhizopus stolonifer. There were more aflatoxin positive samples from the Mid-Altitude (moist) zone (88%) followed by those samples from the Mid-Altitude (dry) zone (78%) while samples from the Highland zone (69%) were least contaminated. Aflatoxin levels increased with storage time such that maize samples from the Mid-Altitude (dry and moist) stored for more than six months had mean levels greater than the 20 ppb FDA/WHO regulatory limits. Aflatoxin B1 was the most predominant type and was found to contaminate maize kernels from all the three agroecological zones. These results indicate that maize consumers in Uganda are exposed to the danger of aflatoxin poisoning. Thus, there is the need for policy makers to establish and enforce maize quality standards and regulations related to moulds and aflatoxins across the agroecological zones to minimize health hazards related to consumption of contaminated kernels.

Kaaya, N. A and W. Kyamuhangire. 2006. The effect of storage time and agroecological zone on mould incidence and aflatoxin contamination of maize from traders in Uganda
International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 110(3) 217-223

Factors Affecting Aflatoxin Contamination of Harvested Maize in the Three Agroecological Zones of Uganda.

Abstract

A survey was conducted in 2003 to establish aflatoxin levels in maize and the associated farmer practices in the three agroecological zones of Uganda. Maize kernels obtained from farmers in the Mid-Altitude (moist) zone had the highest aflatoxin contaminated samples (83%) and mean aflatoxin levels of 9.7 ppb followed by those from the Mid-Altitude (dry) where 70% were contaminated with a mean of 7.7 ppb, while the kernels sampled from the Highland zone had the least contaminated samples (55%) and mean aflatoxin levels of 3.9 ppb. Aflatoxin contamination in maize grain was positively related to leaving maize to dry in the field for more than three weeks, drying maize without husks, drying maize on bare ground, shelling maize by beating, heaping maize on the floor during storage and use of baskets for storage of maize. The practices that negatively impacted on aflatoxin development in maize in the agroecological zones were sorting before storage, storage of maize in shelled form, storage of maize in bags, use of improved granary as storage structures, storage of maize above fireplace and use of synthetic pesticides. Thus, those practices that reduce aflatoxin contamination of maize should be adopted by all farmers in Uganda to reduce the health hazards associated with consumption of contaminated maize grain.

 Kaaya, N. A, W. Kyamuhangire and S. Kyamanywa. 2006. Factors Affecting Aflatoxin Contamination of Harvested Maize in the Three Agroecological Zones of Uganda. Journal of Applied Sciences 6 (11) 2401

Peanut Aflatoxin Levels on Farms and in Markets of Uganda

Abstract

A study was conducted between July 2003 and July 2004 to determine aflatoxin content of peanut from farmers and dealers (wholesalers and retailers) in Mayuge, Iganga and Mubende districts of Uganda, and from St. Balikuddembe, Nakawa, and Kalerwe, the three busiest peanut markets in Kampala, the capital city. Information on peanut storage and processing practices as well as aflatoxin awareness was obtained from dealers. At farm level, the mean aflatoxin levels ranged from 7.3 to 12.4 ppb which is lower than the FDA/WHO regulatory limit of 20 ppb. These levels tend to increase as peanut are processed and stored both at wholesale and retail levels where most samples routinely exceeded 20 ppb. All forms of peanut obtained from retailers in all markets had levels of aflatoxin significantly higher than corresponding samples obtained from wholesalers. In all markets, the highest levels of aflatoxin were found in unsorted kernels and white flour, while the sorted kernels and dark-roasted paste had lower aflatoxin contents. Thus, sorting and roasting appear to reduce aflatoxins in peanut. None of the wholesalers or retailers was aware of aflatoxin and related health issues. It is recommended that the Government of Uganda designs aflatoxin awareness campaigns and management strategies for peanut.

Kaaya, N. A, W. Eigel and C. Harris. 2006. Peanut Aflatoxin Levels on Farms and in Markets of Uganda Peanut Science 33: 68

Spatial distribution of primates in a mosaic of colonizing and old growth forest at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

Abstract

Primate censuses were conducted in a mosaic of colonizing (two locations) and old-growth forests using line transect methods at the Ngogo study site, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) were encountered more frequently in the colonizing forests than in the old growth forest, while chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were encountered more frequently in the old growth forest than in colonizing forests. Although not significant, results suggest that blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) frequented colonizing forests more often than old growth forest. The encounter rates of mangabey (Lophocebus albigena), and redtail (Cercopithecus ascanius) groups were ambiguous with their density being higher in some colonizing forests but not others as compared to old-growth forest. No significant differences were detected for baboons (Papio anubis), L'hoest's (Cercopithecus lhoesti), and red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus tephroscales). The conversion of forests to farmland is one of the major problems encountered in primate conservation. This study shows that secondary forests replacing anthropogenic grasslands have the potential of supporting some primate species such as black and white colobus, redtail monkeys, and possibly blue monkeys. Therefore, such areas should not be given up but should be conserved for the benefit of primates that can survive in secondary forests; as the forests mature further, primate species that are adapted to old growth forest will colonize the area provided there is a nearby source.

 Lwanga, J. S. (2006). Spatial distribution of primates in a mosaic of colonizing and old growth forest at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Primates, 47: 230

The influence of forest variation and possible effects of poaching on duiker abundance at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

Abstract

Duikers were censused at the Ngogo study area, Kibale National Park, Uganda, between July 2002 and August 2004. Censuses were conducted along three transects, of which, two (colonizing forests 1 and 2) were located in colonizing forests naturally replacing anthropogenic grasslands and one in old growth forest. Colonizing forest 1 was more prone to poaching than both colonizing forest 2 and the old growth forest that were closest to the research camp. Duikers that were actually sighted were identified to species, red or blue. However, on some occasions, duikers were detected by alarm calls and/or movements as they fled; these were simply recorded as duikers. Duiker abundance, regardless of species or mode of detection, was higher in colonizing forest 2 than colonizing forest 1 and the old growth forest. However, when the analysis was restricted only to duikers that were sighted, and hence identified to species, red duiker abundance was highest in colonizing forest 2 followed by the old growth forest and was lowest in colonizing forest 1; all these differences were significant. Blue duiker abundance was lowest in the old growth forest despite its proximity to the research camp; however, this was only significantly lower than in colonizing forest 2. Apart from colonizing forest 1, red duikers were significantly more abundant than blue duikers in the other two forest sections. This study suggests that forests colonizing anthropogenic grasslands may support more duikers than old growth forests; poaching in colonizing forest 1 has a severe impact on the duiker population and, red duikers are affected more severely by poaching than blue duikers.

Keywords:

  • bushmeat;
  • duikers;
  • old growth;
  • rainforest;
  • secondary

 Lwanga, J. S. (2006). The influence of forest variation and possible effects of poaching on duiker abundance at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 44:209-218.


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