Copyright 2018 - #

Contains all the publications for 2010.

Genetic effects of inbreeding on harvest index and root dry matter content in cassava

Abstract

Inbreeding of predominantly cross-pollinating crops is expected to result in progeny with reduced fitness and or improved phenotypes. The effects of inbreeding in cassava are not well quantified. Accordingly, in this exploratory study, S1 progeny from six cassava genotypes were examined for two agronomic traits harvest index (HI) and root dry matter content (DMC). With introduction of inbreeding, an average HI reduction of 36% was recorded when six non-inbred parents were compared to the S1 progeny. Similarly, an average DMC reduction of 13.2% was observed with cassava inbreeding. Thus, with inbreeding, highest reduction was observed in HI as compared to DMC.

Key words: Inbreeding depression, Manihot esculenta, S1 progenies

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Empowering primary school children to produce food to mitigate short-term hunger through school gardening: The case of Universal primary schools in Kamuli and Soroti Districts, Uganda

Abstract

Short-term hunger caused by inability of parents to pay for or pack lunch for their children threatens success of Universal Primary Education in Uganda. School gardening if properly introduced offers a sustainable solution that empowers the pupils to gain life skills in agriculture and to produce food for school feeding programme. Agricultural clubs inspire and motivate pupils to practice agriculture when they own the enterprises. The clubs also enable pupils to learn other skills associated with selforganisation, leadership and teamwork. Sustainability of school gardening, however, requires commitment and joint engagement of researchers, extension workers, school administration, parents and local leadership.

Key words: Learning, school gardening, short-term hunger, UPE schools

Farmer perceptions and knowledge on soil quality indicators and their use in soil fertility monitoring

Abstract

Assessing soil quality is important so as to learn about the effects of management practices on soil function, create awareness and education, and provides a basis for evaluation of alternative practices. Soil quality often cannot be directly measured, therefore, scientists use soil quality indicators to evaluate how well soil functions. Unfortunately, the scientific indicators used are expensive and farmers do not often understand the language used. Moreover, scientists have limited knowledge on farmers

Assessing the efficacy of pyramided genes in conferring dual and durable resistance to bean anthracnose and root rot

Abstract

Bean anthracnose (Colletotricum lindemuthianum) and root rots are important diseases of beans in Uganda. The coexistence of both diseases on the crop in farmers

Gender dimensions of climate change adaptation and mitigation by smallholder farmers in Uganda

Abstract

Climate change is now recognized as serious with long term negative effects on agricultural productivity, and hence on thewell-being of communities especially in Africa. Farmers have experienced climate change effects and have tried to mitigate these effects by adapting new/different production practices. This study has been set up to better understanding farmers

Characterization of a diverse set of maize germplasm for resistance to infection by Aspergillus flavus and accumulation of aflatoxin

Abstract

Sources of resistance to A. flavus have been identified elsewhere but no such materials are currently available for use by the maize improvement program in Uganda. The goal of this study was to initiate breeding for resistance to the fungus by identifying maize inbred lines, testers and hybrids that show high resistance to Aspergillus flavus and field accumulation of aflatoxin through: (1) screening inbred lines, testers and hybrids for resistance, (2) determining general and specific combining ability associated with resistance and determining the relationship between traits associated with resistance. Results indicated a highly significant variation (P<0.001) in resistance among inbred lines and testers. Testcrosses also showed significant variability (P<0.05). Inbred lines showed a significant GCA for kernel infection rate while testers showed significant GCA for severity of infection (P<0.05). SCA for both kernel infection rate and severity was non significant.

Key words: Aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, general combining ability, kernel infection rate, specific combining ability

Household objectives and achievement levels among Uganda

Abstract

Ugandan farmers are increasingly adopting perceived High Value Crops (HVCs) including Chillies (Capsicum annum), French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). This is aimed at addressing priority household objective of increasing incomes. This paper aimed at determining the priority problems that farmers

Assessment of spatio-temporal redistribution of major crops and livestock mobility due to climate change and variability in Uganda

Abstract

Considering how climate will change over the years offer important insight into how the challenges as result of climate change (CC) and variability can be responded to. Modeling and descriptive studies are being conducted in Uganda to generate information to guide activities geared towards building resilience of agro-pastoralist communities in adapting to and mitigating present and future climate change and variability impacts. Specifically, the study is assessing the performance of different global climate models (GCMs) in the MAGICC/ Scengen tool with the view to obtain the best combination to be used for downscaling and projecting climate change and variability in Uganda, document the past and current responses in most vulnerable farming communities

Carbon stock trends in selected agro ecological zones of Uganda

Abstract

This study determined the trend in carbon densities and stocks from major land uses/covers of semi arid and sub humid areas of Uganda. Carbon densities were estimated from soils and woody biomass pools of the major homogenous units in terms of land-use/cover, topography and soil. In Soroti, preliminary results show that the carbon density was generally highest in soil than in above ground wood plants (P<0.05). The highest carbon density was observed under woodland (248.2Mg/ha) and fallow (213.1 mg/ha), followed by grazing land (173.2 mg/ ha) and annuals (167.66 mg/ha); and the lowest was observed under perennial agriculture (Orchard) (56.6 mg/ha) (P<0.05).

Key words: Agro-ecological zones, carbon densities, carbon stocks, land-use cover/change, Uganda

S1 and S2 selection of Longe 4 maize variety for tolerance to low soil nitrogen in Uganda

Abstract

Low nitrogen is a major environmental stress leading to low yields in maize. Identification of varieties able to perform well under low soil N is of great significance to the resource poor farmers in the country especially when input costs are high and fertilizer use is very low (3%). For this purpose S1, S2 and S2R (S2 random) families derived from Longe 4; a popular early maturing OPV, were evaluated. Yield, yield components and other agronomic traits were assessed among families to compare mean performance of generations, to estimate heritability and the amount of genetic variance in the three samples, and to determine the magnitude of correlation between traits and between environments. Results obtained indicated that S1s in both testing environments yielded higher than S2s and gave larger predicted gains from selection. Genetic variances were higher for S1s in both environments; therefore, more rapid gains for yield in Longe 4 are expected from S1 compared to S2 selection. The overall yield reduction in the low-N test was 35% and 34% in 2009A and 2009B, respectively. Average broad sense heritability estimates under low N were 21% for grain yield, 17% for ASI (S2); narrow-sense heritability was 0.24 and 0.52 for grain yield and ASI respectively. Genotype means under low N showed correlations between grain yield and: ASI, -0.23; plant height, 0.52; leaf senescence, 0.15 and leaf nitrogen concentration, 0.12. In conclusion, sufficient amount of genotypic variation was found for low N tolerance among Longe 4 S1 and S2 families which can be improved by selection. Selection should be done at S1 to save time and avoid an extra season of selfing and the associated resources required. Predicted gains were higher for S1 families and when ranks of grain yield were averaged across N-levels, therefore both environments should be used in selection of genotypes for low nitrogen performance if feasible.

Key words: Low nitrogen, S1, selfed progeny 1, S2, selfed progeny 2 and low N


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