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Contains all publications for 2011.

Understanding sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii) habitats through diet analysis in Rushebeya-Kanyabaha wetland, Uganda

Abstract

Between January and December 2008, we assessed the diet and habitat selection of sitatunga, a highly endangered tropical wetland antelope threatened by habitat loss in Rushebeya-Kanyabaha wetland. Microhistological faecal analysis and vegetative sampling methods were used to assess plant forms, species and seasonal changes in the sitatunga diet. Habitat use was indirectly determined by assessing feeding patterns, distribution of dung and trails within the wetland. Sitatunga fed mainly on herbs, sedges, grasses and shrubs. A total of 34 plant species were recorded as eaten by sitatunga. The most eaten plant species was Cyperus papyrus L. (22%). Malenthera scandens Schum. & Thonn., Polygonum senegalense Meisu (12%) and Polygonum pulchrum Blume (5%) were the most eaten herbs. Zea mays L. was the most eaten agricultural crop (58% of domestic crops), mainly during the wet season. Sitatunga feeding was mainly concentrated on the wetland edge habitat (46%) where most of its food (53%) was located. The other preferred habitat was the tall closed papyrus. We conclude that the long-term survival of sitatunga requires a management plan focussing on the conservation of the most preferred plant species and habitats.

Key words: microhistological, Rushebeya-Kanyabaha, Tragelaphus spekei, tropical wetland

Human-Wildlife Conflict and Its Implication for Conservation around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Abstract

This study analyzed the impact of wildlife on farmers who lived around the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP). The objectives were to assess the extent of damage exerted upon local farmers and to establish problem animal control strategies employed for park management and community members. Respondents identified crop loss as the major form of damage (40%), followed by social disruption (35%), damage to property (30%) and threats to human life (20%). The majority of the farmers (63%) reported that the park did not employ any measures to protect people's crops. Very small percentages recognized that the park management employed fencing, vermin guards, and HUGO, as preventive measures to guard against raiding of the peoples

Utilising Agricultural Waste to Enhance Food Security and Conserve the Environment.

ABSTRACT

Due to the increase in the world

E.N Sabiiti (2011) Utilising Agricultural Waste to Enhance Food Security and Conserve the Environment. Published by the African Scholarly Science Communications Trust.vol 11.No. 6.

Development of the Production Process for Sorghum Ice-Cream Cones.

Abstract

The demand for wheat has been increasing with the growth of baking industries in Uganda resulting in soaring prices of wheat flour and thus, a need to find alternative sources. Wheat was substituted completely with whole white sorghum flour (Epuripur variety) in a cone recipe and other ingredients varied to form different sorghum cones. The following parameters of the cones were measured; moisture content, weight, hardness, baking ability, head formation and as well as the functionality (ice-cream holding time). One way, two way and three way effects due to water increase, maize binder increase and reduction in sorghum particle size were found to be significant (p<0.05) but correlations between functionality (ice-cream holding time) and the cone parameters were found to be weak (p<0.05). The highest ranking sorghum cone in functionality held ice-cream for 22 min and remained crisp for at least 20 min was selected and tested for consumer acceptance against the commercial wheat cone using a panel of 31 people. Consumer acceptance testing was done using 2 types of successive category scales; a 9 point hedonic scale to rate appearance, color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability and the Food Action rating scale (FACT) scale measured acceptance by the frequency of eating measurement. The sorghum cone was rated higher than the commercial wheat cone in terms of texture, taste, overall acceptability and FACT ratings. Overall acceptability correlated highly with texture (r2 = 0.732) and appearance (r2 = 0.65). Based on these findings, it can therefore be concluded that the sorghum cone formulation was successfully produced, well accepted and can be adopted for production.

 Kigozi, J., Y. Byaruhanga, A. N. Kaaya and N. Banadda. 2011. Development of the Production Process for Sorghum Ice-Cream Cones. Journal of Food Technology 9 (6): 143

Estimation of live body weight using zoometrical measurements for improved marketing of indigenous chicken in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

Abstract

The relationship between zoometrical measurements and live body weight was determined in indigenous chicken of the Lake Victoria Crescent Agro-ecological Zone in Uganda. A sample of 493 mature birds (342 females and 151 males) was used to measure body length, femur circumference, chest circumference, femur length, femur circumference, shank length, and keel. The effect of age and sex was significant (P < 0.01) for all measurements. Males showed higher live body weights and other body measurements than their female counterparts (P < 0.01) while all body measurements, increased with age. An average mature male chicken weighed 2.11

Kugonza, D.R., Mutetikka D. Ssennyonjo J. and Mwesigwa M. 2011. Estimation of live body weight using zoometrical measurements for improved marketing of indigenous chicken in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 23, Article 170. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from http://www.lrrd.org/ lrrd23/8/sema23170.htm.

Pastoralists

Abstract

The criteria for identification, selection and kinship assignment of Ankole cattle and their roles to pastoralists were studied on 248 farms in Kiboga, Mbarara, Mpigi and Sembabule districts of Uganda using a questionnaire, administered during one-to-one interviews. Farms were randomly sampled along transects originating from the headquarters of each of the 19 sub-counties studied. We found that male Ankole cattle are reared for income from sales, meat for home use and ceremonies, aesthetic value and to maintain cultural heritage. Female cattle are mainly kept for milk production, income from sales, heritage and aesthetics, and in few cases, for home use as meat. Other functions included savings, manure and butter production. All cattle are named at birth with coat colour or pattern being the main identification criterion; hence, it is also useful in assigning kinship. Selection criteria for males are more stringent than for females. On most farms, all females are kept for further breeding and are only culled in cases of poor reproductive health. Primary emphasis in selecting males is on the performance of ancestors in milk and reproductive traits, and then on the qualities of the bull itself. Bulls are selected mainly focusing on a big body frame and size, horns that are white, large and curved upward and a plain dark red

Kugonza, D.R., Nabasirye M., Hanotte O., Mpairwe D., & Okeyo A.M.2011. Pastoralists

Productivity and morphology of Ankole cattle in three livestock production systems in Uganda.

Abstract

Phenotypic characterization is critical in breed improvement and conservation. To determine the performance and morphological features of Ankole cattle in three livestock production systems (LPS) of Uganda, 248 farms were studied. Height at withers (HW), heart girth (HG), body length (BL), ear length, horn length (HL), distance between horn tips (HS) and body weight (BW) were then measured on 120 bulls and 180 cows. Data were analysed using LPS (crop livestock, agropastoral, pastoral), county (Gomba, Kazo, Kiboga, Mawoggola, Nyabushozi) and sex (females, males) as main factors. In the results, age at sexual maturity was 23.6

Genetic diversity and differentiation of Ankole cattle populations in Uganda inferred from microsatellite data.

Abstract

A total of 304 individuals from eight Ankole cattle populations of Uganda were analysed based on 19 microsatellite markers to investigate genetic diversity, relationships and population structure. Across all loci, 200 alleles were observed. A high mean number of alleles (MNA) per locus, ranging from 5.89 to 6.79 per population, was observed. Polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.403 (ILSTS013) to 0.817 (ILSTS036), with an overall mean over all loci of 0.688. The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) was highest in Kaibanda (0.727) and lowest in Kituuha (0.648), while the expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.722 (Nshaara) to 0.664 (Kituuha), though for all populations the differences were not significant. Significant deviations from Hardy

Kugonza D.R., Jianlin, H., Nabasirye, M., Mpairwe, D. Kiwuwa, G.H., Okeyo, A.M., Hanotte, O. 2011. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Ankole cattle populations in Uganda inferred from microsatellite data. Livestock Science. 135

Performance of growing pigs fed cereal processing by-products from maize bran or wheat bran.

Abstract

Wheat bran, a by-product of the dry milling of common wheat

Mwesigwa, R., Mutetikka, D. Kugonza, D.R. 2011. Performance of growing pigs fed cereal processing by-products from maize bran or wheat bran. 3rd Makerere Annual Research & Innovations Dissemination Conference, Hotel Africana, Kampala, Uganda. April 11

Effects of feeding sun-dried brewer

Kabugo, S., Mutetikka, D.Kugonza, D.R. 2011. Effects of feeding sun-dried brewer


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