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Contains all publications for 2012.

Long Term changes in Africa

In 2000, MacArthur Foundation identified the Albertine Rift as an area of global importance for biodiversity conservation and it became a focal region for our Conservation and Sustainable Development program. We supported the creation of a common vision for conservation in the Albertine Rift through a process involving NGOs, protected area authorities, national universities and other stakeholders. In April 2003, we brought together key players who established key conservation objectives, defined the boundaries of the region, and identified six smaller landscape units for sub-regional planning. This plan has informed all our subsequent work in the region...

Wildlife damage and control methods around Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda

Abstract

This study documents the different management and control measures developed and implemented by farmers to mitigate vertebrate pest attacks on crops and livestock around Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda. A semistructured interview administered to 40 randomly selected park neighbours was supplemented with key informant interviews, a review of secondary data, and direct observations of vertebrate pest problems and their management. All participant farmers had experienced some damage from vertebrate pests. Bushpigs ranked as the most destructive to crops, while leopards were most destructive to livestock. Most damage occurred during severe dry seasons.

Dynamics of Fusarium and fumonisins in maize during storage

Abstract

The dynamics of Fusarium and fumonisins in maize grains stored in traditionalstructures (Granary, Mudsilo and Tua) commonly used in Uganda were investigated. The storagestructures were constructed using locally available materials following the procedures used by farmers. Maize was stored in both shelled and unshelled form. Moisture and insect damage were also monitored. Moisture content of the maize grains in all the storagestructures decreased from an average of 19.2% to <14% within two months. The maize weevil (Stophilus zeamais) was the major cause of grain damage. Fusarium incidence in all the structures increased from an average of 61.9

Read more: Dynamics of Fusarium and fumonisins in maize during storage

Diversity of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex isolated from maize produced in Uganda.

Abstract

Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella moniliformis, Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A) and Fusarium proliferatum (Gibberella intermedia, G. fujikuroi mating population D) are the major Fusarium species contaminating maize worldwide. Occurrence of such species in maize is of great concern due to their ability to produce fumonisins. In this study, we report the diversity of the G. fujikuroi species isolated from maize produced in Uganda. Overall, 26 strains belonging to G. fujikuroi complex were isolated. The isolates were matched with 9 strains in the NCBI Fusarium ID database and formed 4 clusters with seven distinct phylogenetic groups. Majority of the isolates (52%) were identified as G. moniliformis. Only, 16% of the isolates were identified as F. proliferatum. Six isolates morphologically identified as either F. verticillioides or F. proliferatum could not be identified to species level. Wide intraspecific variability was observed amongst the strains. G. moniliformis exhibited the highest level of intraspecific variability evidenced by formation of 5 distinct groups. Phylogenetic analysis did not show any relationship between clusters/groups and geographical origin. The findings of this study clearly indicated that maize produced in Uganda is infected with strains of G. fujikuroi species complex which are highly diverse. The results provide important information for further understanding the relationship between the occurrence of G. fujikuroi strains and fumonisin contamination in maize produced in Uganda.

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Read more: Diversity of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex isolated from maize produced in Uganda.

Information and Communication for Rural Innovation and Development: Context, Quality and Priorities in Southeast Uganda.

Abstract

Purpose: To examine the status and priorities for agricultural information generation, dissemination and utilization in the context of agricultural innovation systems in southeast Uganda.Design/Methodology/Approach: Group discussions were conducted with six communities in Kamuli district, southeast Uganda. The focus was on information sources and linkages, reliability, applicability and gaps. Data were analyzed with NVIVO software.

Findings: Rural community members access information from a variety of sources but its reliability and application varies according to the nature of relations with and level of trust in the various sources. Further, community members lack means and capacity to hold accountable providers of low quality information. Information linkages among actors (farmers, extension, private sector and local leaders) were also minimal.

Practical Implications: Establishment of feedback loops and partnerships among actors is necessary to ensure improvements in information generation and dissemination for rural development.

Originality/Value: This study demonstrates the need for efforts to improve information and communication for rural development in developing countries. Trustworthiness of information sources, strengthening partnerships among actors, continuously reviewing approaches, and addressing emerging information gaps are key priorities. In agricultural innovation systems, involvement of multiple actors in information generation and dissemination is essential.

Keywords

Determination of the heterotic groups of maize inbred lines and the inheritance of their resistance to the maize weevil.

Abstract

Maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) is a pest of maize causing serious losses to resource-poor farmers in the tropics. To combine resistance to Maize Weevil with high yield in maize, 52 inbred lines reported to harbor resistance were crossed to tester A and B and resultant progenies evaluated in different locations for yield. GENSTAT statistical package 12th edition revealed highly significant differences among entries for diseases and other important agronomic traits. Analysis of GCA and SCA showed that additive effects were more important than non additive for most of these traits. Additive and non additive effects had equal importance for response to yield in Namulonge, whereas SCA effects were more important in Masaka. Inbred lines were assigned to their heterotic groups. Across site analysis of GxE for yield revealed that the testcrosses were environment specific (p<0.01). Weevil resistance study involved the inbred parents, ten top best crosses obtained from lines with tester A and B as well as their oppositecrosses. Thirty-two young adult weevils were used to infest 50-g maize samples.
Key words: Heterotic group, inheritance, maize weevil Les charan

Read more: Determination of the heterotic groups of maize inbred lines and the inheritance of their...

Accuracy of pastoralists

Abstract

This study aimed to estimate the level of relatedness within Ankole cattle herds using autosomal microsatellite markers and to assess the accuracy of relationship assignment based on farmers

 Kugonza, D.R., Kiwuwa, G.H., Mpairwe, D., Jianlin, H., Nabasirye, M., Okeyo, A.M., Hanotte, O. 2011.Accuracy of pastoralists

Governance of Common Property Tourism Resources; The Case of Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary (BWS), Uganda.

Ahebwa. M. W., Ayorekire. J., Lepp, A (2012): Governance of Common Property Tourism Resources; The Case of Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary (BWS), Uganda. Paper Presented at 7th Atlas Africa Conference, Kampala (June 2011). To be submitted to a journal.

Gorrilla Tourism at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park; An Actor Network Perspective.

Abstract

The border region of Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Burundi has been the theatre of continuous violence for over almost one and a half decade. The most well-known tragedy in the region was the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, followed by a massive flow of Hutu ethnic people fleeing towards eastern DRC, then-called Zaire. Estimates from OCHA point out that since the outbreak of conflict in Rwanda almost 5 million people have been killed and millions displaced. Despite of official peace settlements there is still a lot of violence and unrest in the region, especially in Rwanda, Burundi and eastern DRC. It is estimated that in the DRC still 1,000 people die every day as a result of the war (ICG,2005). Although difficult to identify the main factors behind the conflicts, a variety of factors

 Ampumuza. C., Ahebwa. M. W., Van der Duim, R. (2011): Gorrilla Tourism at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park; An Actor Network Perspective. Paper Presented at 7th Atlas Africa Conference, Kampala (June 2011). To be submitted to a journal

Food safety

Abstract

Selected commercial aquaculture enterprises in Uganda were evaluated for compliance with internationally recommended food safety-related control measures. Food hazard control measures at potential critical control points of: farm siting, farm facilities and premises, and facilities for feed processing and storage, chemical storage, drug storage and waste storage were evaluated. Requirements for traceability, legal and certification, standard sanitation operating procedures and food safety skills for farm workers were the other measures evaluated. On a scale of 0 - 5 where 0 denotes none, 1 very low, 2 low, 3 acceptable, 4 almost total and 5, full compliance, the majority of control points evaluated had average scores below 3, a minimum acceptable level of compliance with international guidelines. Feed processing and storage areas were the most deficient of the potential critical control points. Other significant deficiencies occurred in requirements for traceability of fish and use of on-farm standard sanitation operating procedures. Veterinary drug use, a common problem with aquaculture exports, was not an issue since none of the farms was highly intensive

 Ananias Bagumire, Ewen C.D. Todd,George W. Nasinyama and Charles Muyanja (2012): Food safety


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